K-9 Training in Indo Tibetan Border Police, Border Security Force and Central Reserve Police Force

National Training Centre For Dogs

Indo Tibetan Border Police

Police/Paramilitary Dog

Chapter 1

Police/CPMF Working Dog Program

Section I


1 Purpose

This book explains policies, procedures, and responsibilities for the direction, management, and control of the Police and Paramilitary K9 Squad that includes ITBP,BSF,CRPF,CSF and civil Police organizations.

This treatise provides extensive guidance, standards, and information regarding training and utilization of K9 teams, controlled substances and explosive training aids, veterinary care, kennel facilities, dog equipments and points to be kept in mind while conducting inspection . It provides the commander with the information needed to maintain a proficient and operationally effective Police/CPMF working dog squad.

2. Explanation of abbreviations and terms

Abbreviations and special terms used in this pamphlet are explained in the consolidated glossary.

3. Historical basis

Dogs have been used by people to help protect themselves and their property since ancient times. Trained dogs have been used by most of the world’s military forces since the first military units were organized. The actual utility of a working dog had been for the first time tested on a large scale by the German Forces during the Second World War followed by the utilization of dogs for the war effort by the allied forces. From these ancient beginnings, the dog training has been continuously refined to produce a highly sophisticated and versatile extension of the soldier’s own senses. Even the most complex machines remain unable to duplicate the operational effectiveness of a properly trained dog. The dog’s unique capabilities are used by the police and CPMFs to very broadly encompass the following areas:

a. Secure human life, installation and property.

b. Help enforce laws .

c. Increase the effectiveness of the combat support.

4. The role of Paramilitary/Police Dog

Like other highly specialized items of equipment, dog’s complement and enhance the capabilities of the soldier. When used by organisations, K9 teams enable the men to perform their mission more effectively and, in many cases, with significant savings of manpower, time, and money. K9 teams also provide a strong psychological deterrent to potential offenders and ANEs (anti-national elements). The dog is tolerant of people and can be used in almost any area of an installation including vehicles, parade grounds airfields, housing, shopping, industrial areas, railway stations etc. Patrol dog teams are used with law enforcement and security patrols to enhance the rear area protection capability. Dogs can be effectively used to search, scout, track and observe from listening or observation posts. Detection dog teams are trained to detect controlled substances or explosives used to construct explosive devices that threaten, damage, or destroy personnel or property. The use of dogs in search and rescue (SAR) is another upcoming though nascent field in India. The K9 team’s specialized capabilities make it one of the most effective tools available to the commander for combat support, security, and law enforcement. As the only live equipment employed in security endeavours, the dog’s continuing proficiency depends on realistic daily training and care. Skills which are not practiced or used can be lost. The assignment of dogs and handlers together as active teams is critical to their continuing effectiveness.

5. Quality assurance

Every level of command within the organisation has specific responsibilities for making sure that the K9 program is properly established and efficiently managed. This includes ensuring that operational units are provided with trained dogs and handlers to form teams, and the necessary equipment and facilities to maintain effective local K9 programs. The constant honing and maintenance of professional skills of dogs and their handlers is a continuous process, therefore the importance of regular mock drills and dry runs is paramount.

Section II

Understanding Police/Paramilitary Working Dogs

1. Advantages of dogs

A dog can be trained to respond consistently to certain sensory stimuli (odors, scents, and so forth) to alert the handler. If the dog’s reaction to selected stimuli is always rewarded by the handler, the reward reinforces the dog’s behavior, motivating the dog to repeat the actions. A properly trained handler learns to recognize the dog’s reactions and to recognise the source because of the characteristics of the reaction learned during training.

2. Superiority of senses

Under almost any set of circumstances, a properly trained dog can smell, hear, and visually detect movement better than a person. Trained dogs respond to selected stimuli and alert their handlers to that which they have been trained to detect. The dogs’ detection abilities can be inconsistent; however, some variance is normal and must be considered when evaluating a dog’s performance.

3. Identifying Role for the K9 Squad

The following should be considered when evaluating the possible use of K9 squads:

a. The task to be performed.

(1) Deterrence. The obvious presence and well–published activities of the K9 Squads can successfully deter ANEs, trespassers, vandals, violent persons, and so forth.

(2) Detection. If the desired task is to detect unauthorised or suspect individuals, the dog-handler team should be assigned to a location and during a time of day or night when visual, sound, and odor distractions are at a minimum. Examples include patrolling of shopping or industrial areas after normal operating hours, patrolling a housing area during duty hours or at night, patrolling an airfield or aircraft maintenance area after normal duty hours, or searching a supposedly unoccupied building. Narcotics and explosives detector dogs (EDDs) are trained to perform their detection skills under an extremely wide range of conditions so that location and time of day are not critical factors. Detection of victims during natural and man made disasters is another task performed by SAR dogs. Patrol dogs also are trained to apprehend suspects at or near a crime scene, stop those who may attempt to escape, and to protect civilians from harm. Some dogs may be able to track suspects who have left the scene of a crime.

Section III

Starting a Police/Paramilitary Working Dog Squad

1. Determining need

The specific needs must be determined and the costs of the program must be justified. There is no easy formula to determine the number and type of K9 teams needed at any particular installation or area. The decision process involves a thorough risk and crime analysis, and an accurate evaluation of the requirements of the entire project. Normal, emergency, and contingency conditions will be analyzed for all security, law enforcement, and combat support missions.

Some of the factors to consider when determining the need for establishment of K9 squad could include:

(1) The unit mission.

(2) The size of the unit’s area of responsibility.

(3) The size of the population or the number of personnel to be served by the unit.

(4) Incident rates for appropriate crimes against property (for example, housebreaking, burglary, vandalism), crimes of violence (for example, assault, rape, bomb threats, and incidents), and drug usage (criminal cases, quantity of substances seized, level of self–admitted drug abuse, urinalysis test results, and so forth).

(5) Present capability and the commitment of a portion of the manpower resources as dog (K9) handlers.

(6) The types of terrain or in the probable areas of deployment.

(7) The types of combat support missions for which teams can be used.

(8) The number of installation facilities or areas that can be more adequately protected because of the availability or use of K9 teams.

(9) The capabilities and limitations of teams when assigned to certain types of duties.

(10) Additional considerations or guidelines to use in determining the need for a dog program or for determining the number of dogs needed in a program.

(11)Probably the most difficult obstacles to overcome in order to establish a K9 unit or concern the cost and construction of required kennel facilities. Kennel facilities should be constructed before dogs begin to arrive. Therefore, planning requires an early commitment to provide resources and construct the necessary kennel facilities. When planning for a K9 program, commanders should weigh that the advantages of adding dog teams to the force and that the associated costs are justified by reasonable expectations of reduced crime rates and increased security. Accordingly, the justification should consider such factors as the following:

(1) Increasing the effectiveness of the General Duty Troops.

(2) The additional areas that can be protected using K9 teams.

(3) The additional tasks that can be done with K9 teams that cannot be done, or cannot be done as well, with present manpower and equipment resources.

2. Kennel construction approval

Once the need and justification for a K9 squad are established, the commander initiates a request to engineering branch/CPWD to develop the kennel facility design. Extensive guidance on kennel design and location that will meet local conditions and requirements are also explained in this book in the following chapters. The standard designs significantly lower the cost of kennel facilities. Cost must be kept as low as possible to ensure that funding can be provided; therefore, kennels should not use expensive construction materials when less expensive materials accomplish the same purpose. (Some features such as the separation between kennels, ventilation, and safe electrical connections are necessary.) Before the kennel design has been finalised, the veterinarian should be consulted to ensure that minimum

veterinary requirements are included in the final design. After kennel designs are completed and construction costs estimated, the kennel project is submitted for approval and funding to Directorate General. The request for authorisation for establishment of K9 squad must include the statement that the commitment has been made to fund and build kennels.

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